By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is among the so much interesting rulers of historical Egypt. His strange visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have encouraged educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten was once no longer, as is frequently acknowledged, an intensive advocating a brand new faith yet fairly a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's thought used to be the previous nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unequalled head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier reveals that Akhenaten was once a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only author God, in response to the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine stumble upon that introduced his monotheistic non secular odyssey.
The publication additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable courting to Israel's faith, supplying an in depth comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out through students as stimulated via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious studying of key texts, works of art, and archaeological reviews, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the influence of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Extra resources for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
24*. 1 Montu of Thebes (Karnak Temple). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. his bow while driving his chariot;30 on a ivory bracelet in Berlin, Montu stands before Thutmose IV as he smites his foes. 11), as having “the might of Montu in his limbs” . . “he was acquainted with the works of Montu” . . ”31 In all, Montu’s name occurs six times on that stela. Montu, then, enjoyed a rapid rise in power in Thebes with the 11th Dynasty rulers, but was soon eclipsed in the 12th Dynasty, when a new royal family followed who instigated the ascendancy of another Theban deity, namely, Amun.
101 The reference to the “resting place of Harmakhis” (ḫnw n ḥr m ȝḫt) seems to be referring to the long abandoned Temple of the Sphinx, which must have been largely encroached by sand. Herbert Ricke & Siegfried Schott, Der Harmachistempel des Chefren in Giseh (Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1970), 32–39. 98 Wilkinson, The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, 201. 99 For the text, see Urk. IV, 1276–1286. For translation, see Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 39–43.
17 Reconstruction of Sun Temple of Niuserre (Abu Ghurab). Adapted from W. Stevenson Smith, The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1958), 74. 132 Unfortunately, only the scant remains of two have been identified, those of Userkaf (just north of the Abusir pyramids) and Niuserre at Abu Ghurab, slightly north of Abusir. Those of the next four monarchs have not been discovered or did not survive. Their names are known from various inscriptions, as well as the titles of priests and officials who were attached to these sanctuaries.
Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier