By James H. Green
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Extra info for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable
If a message is broken into small packets and sent through the core network over random patterns, it is difficult to reassemble the message except at the access point. If the access circuit is kept short, it is easy to secure. Furthermore, if the core network has plenty of bandwidth, packets from other sessions can be interleaved to use the excess capacity. The problem with a connectionless network is that packets can arrive with errors or out of sequence, and some method must be used to preserve the integrity.
The DSLAM demultiplexes the signal from the subscriber, splitting the service so the telephone service connects to the central office while the data portion feeds into the ILEC’s backbone network, where it is routed to the service provider. DSL is not an ILEC monopoly service. ILECs typically did not lease bare cable pairs until the Telecommunications Act of 1996 required them to make unbundled network elements (UNEs) available at any feasible interconnection point. The interface to the cable pair in the central office is such a point, which makes it feasible for service providers other than the ILECs to provide DSL service.
The degree of compatibility depends on such issues as the spectrum the DSL type uses and its placement in the cable. 1 has a particular function. This is usually not a matter of concern to the subscriber because the service provider determines which type will be used. This section briefly discusses the characteristics and applications of each type. HDSL T1/E1, which is designed as a trunk carrier, doesn’t fit well into exchange cables. Not only is repeater spacing critical, but also, crosstalk considerations limit the number of systems that can be installed in a 50-pair cable complement.
Access Technologies: DSL and Cable by James H. Green