By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti
Net filtering, censorship of websites, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class around the globe, in democratic nations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st iteration of web controls consisted mostly of establishing firewalls at key web gateways; China's well-known ''Great Firewall of China'' is without doubt one of the first nationwide web filtering platforms. this day the hot instruments for web controls which are rising transcend mere denial of data. those new concepts, which goal to normalize (or even legalize) web regulate, contain particular viruses and the strategically timed deployment of dispensed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization guidelines, and nationwide info shaping techniques. entry managed experiences in this new normative terrain. The publication, a venture from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas reviews, Harvard's Berkman heart for web and Society, and the SecDev workforce, deals six titanic chapters that study web keep an eye on in either Western and japanese Europe and a piece of shorter local stories and nation profiles drawn from fabric accrued by means of the ONI all over the world via a mix of technical interrogation and box examine tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman info Revolution and worldwide Politics sequence
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Additional info for Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace
Net/special/ kg/. 20. pdf. 21. html. 22. net/blog/2008/03/ armenia-imposes-internet-censorship-unrest-breaks-out-following-disputed-presidential-e. 23. Ronald J. Deibert and Rafal Rohozinski, ‘‘Good for Liberty, Bad for Security? Global Civil Society and the Securitization of the Internet,’’ in Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, ed. Ronald J. Deibert, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, and Jonathan Zittrain (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 123–149. 24. As reported by ONI field researchers.
We treat any surveillance happening on the end user device as client-side surveillance, including both software tools like workplace keylogging systems and hardware tools like keyboard tapping devices. We treat any surveillance happening on a machine that predominantly accepts requests, processes them, and returns responses as server-side surveillance. And for simplicity, we treat everything between the client and the server as the network, including the wires over which the data travel and the routers that direct the traffic.
These second- and third-generation controls are increasingly widespread, and they are elusive to traditional ONI testing methods. They are difficult to measure and often require in-depth fieldwork to verify. Consequently, many of the examples in this chapter are based on field investigations carried out by our ONI regional partners where technical testing was used to establish the characteristics of controls, rather than measure the extent of them. We hypothesize that, although these next-generation controls emerged in the CIS, they may in fact be increasingly practiced elsewhere.
Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti