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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Investigation of jet noise is a good example (8). Acoustic intensity, I, of a sound wave is defined as the mean rate of flow of energy through a unit area normal to the direction of propagation (5). Consequently, it represents the power of a sound wave incident on a unit area of a detector. However, unlike their optical counterparts, the simple acoustical detectors do not directly respond to intensity, but rather to pressure, displacement, velocity, or acceleration. But, since energy, and hence intensity, varies as the square of these quantities, one needs only to find the factor of proportionality.

The charge converter output voltage that occurs as a result of a charge input signal is returned through the feedback capacitor to maintain the voltage at the input level near zero. Thus, the charge input is stored in the feedback capacitor, producing a voltage across it that is equal to the value of the charge input divided by the capacitance of the feedback capacitor. The complete transfer function of the circuit describing the relationship between the output voltage and the input acceleration magnitude may be determined by the following complex transform: Eo /a0 = Sa jRfCf ω{1 + jRfCf [1 + (Ca + Cc )/(1 + G) + Cf ]ω} (46) where Eo is the charge converter output (V), a0 the magnitude of acceleration (m/s2), Sa the accelerometer sensitivity (mV/ g), Ca the accelerometer capacitance (F), Cc the cable capacitance (F), Cf the feedback capacitance (F), Rf the feedback loop resistance, and G the amplifier open-loop gain.

Shocks are characterized as sudden releases of energy in the form of short-duration pulses exhibiting various shapes and rise times. They have high magnitudes and wide frequency contents. In the applications where transient and shock measurements are involved, the overall 52 ACCELEROMETERS linearity of the measuring system may be limited to high and low frequencies by phenomena known as zero shift and ringing, respectively. The zero shift is caused by both the phase nonlinearity in the preamplifiers and the accelerometer not returning to steady-state operation conditions after being subjected to high shocks.

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30.Instrumentation and Measurement by John G. Webster (Editor)

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